Institute for Cyber Law, Policy, and Security

Sources and Methodology

Pitt Cyber and Citizens for Better Elections are collecting information about Pennsylvania counties' selection of new voting systems, including the vendor, configuration, and cost. We relied upon press reports, contracts (where available), county press releases and other official statements, and other publicly available information. We also contacted each county election office to confirm details about the county’s selection, although not every county provided us with such information. The specific sources on which we relied in each county are listed below. The great variation and diversity of the specific county purchases—such as the inclusion of maintenance and licensing agreements, the addition of hardware beyond voting machines, varied payment structures, and more—complicate uniform calculation of county per voter costs. We endeavored to be consistent in our handling of costs across counties and have identified each county’s cost-related details as much as was feasible to maximize transparency. County registered voter data are from the Pennsylvania Department of State as of July 8, 2019. 

Any county officials seeking to provide more detail about their county’s selection, suggest a correction, or otherwise communicate with us may contact us at cyber@pitt.edu

Pitt Cyber and Citizens for Better Elections would like to extend their gratitude to Christina Iacono, Jenifer Maslow, and Breanna McVay for their tireless energy and contributions to the research that made this analysis possible, and to Kate Ulreich for her superb graphic and website design work.

Other Resources

Pennsylvania Department of State map with information about the voting system in use in each county.

Pennsylvania Department of State directives to counties requiring paper-based voting systems:

Verified Voting map with county-level detail about voting systems (including specific pieces of equipment in use) as of November 2018. Verified Voting has also introduced an updated map showing new voting systems in Pennsylvania post-2018.

Journalist Emily Previti and PA Post published a map and article with details about Pennsylvania counties’ selections of new voting systems.

County Sources

Adams County

Crouse, Angie (Director of Elections and Voter Services, Adams County, Pennsylvania), interview with Citizens for Better Elections, 16, July 2019.

Pellechio, Vanessa. “New voting machines coming in November.” Gettysburg Times, 11 April 2019. Accessed 29 July 2019.

Pellechio, Vanessa. “New voting machines included in county budget.” Gettysburg Times, 10 December 2018.  Accessed 29 July 2019. 

Allegheny County

Allegheny County Voting Systems Evaluation Committee Report, 19 August 2019. 

Shoemaker, J. Dale. "Despite reservations, Allegheny County board picks Election Systems & Software for large-scale voting equipment contract." Public Source, 26 September 2019. Accessed 1 October 2019. 

Ward, Paula Reed. "Elections board approves vendor for new voting machines." Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 26 September 2019. Accessed 1 October 2019. 

Beaver County

Mandity, Dorene (Director of Elections, Beaver County, Pennsylvania), interview with Pitt Cyber, 30 July 2019. 

Stonesifer, Jared. “County makes switch to Paper Ballots.” The Times, 1 March 2019. Accessed 29 July 2019.

Bedford County

Brown, Debra (Chief Clerk/Director of Elections, Bedford County, Pennsylvania), interview with Pitt Cyber, 6 January 2020.

Bedford County Service Account Quote

Bedford County Voting System Agreement

Berks County

Barsoum, Karen (Assistant Director of Elections, Berks County, Pennsylvania), interview with Citizens for Better Elections, 16 July 2019.

Election Systems and Software, LLC. Berks County. Sales Order Agreement, 15 March 2019.

Shuey, Karen. “Berks County Elections Board picks new voting machines.” Reading Eagle, 4 January 2019. Accessed 29 July 2019.

Shuey, Karen. “Berks County to spend $4.5 million on new voting machines.” Reading Eagle, 11 January 2019. Accessed 29 July 2019.

Blair County

Seymour, Sarah (Director of Elections, Blair County, Pennsylvania), interview with Pitt Cyber, 29 July 2019. 

Stephens, Kay. “Blair picks paper ballots.” Altoona Mirror, 3 April 2019. Accessed 29 July 2019. 

Bradford County

Smithkors, Renee (Director of Elections/Voter Registration, Bradford County, Pennsylvania), interview by Citizens for Better Elections, 16 July 2019.  

Williams, Johnny. “Bradford County: Commissioners approve purchase of new voting machines—Equipment to be ready for 2019 primaries.” Morning Times, 7 December 2018. Accessed 29 July 2019.

Bucks County

Giorno, Deanna (Chief Clerk), Voting Machine Quote Memo, 3 December 2019. Accessed 10 December 2019.

King, Larry. "Board of Elections selects Clear Ballot for new voting machines & system." Bucks County, 27 November 2019. Accessed 10 December 2019.

Quann, Peg. "Bucks County commissioners OK $5.2M purchase of new voting machines." The Intelligencer, 4 December 2019. Accessed 10 December 2019. 

Ullery, Chris. "Bucks Board of Elections recommends hand-marked voting machines for 2020." Bucks County Courier Times, 27 November 2019. Accessed 10 December 2019.

Butler County

Brewer, Shari (Director of Elections and Voter Registration, Butler County, Pennsylvania), interview with Pitt Cyber, 22 July 2019.

Molczan, Kayla. “Butler Co. moves forward with paper-based voting system.” Butler Radio, 1 May 2019. Accessed 29 July 2019. 

Cambria County

Brumbaugh, Jocelyn. “Cambria board approves new voting system.” The Tribune-Democrat, 10 May 2019. Accessed 30 July 2019.

Crowl, Shirley (Director of Elections, Cambria County, Pennsylvania), interview with Pitt Cyber, 16 July 2019.

Carbon County 

Dart, Lisa (Director of Elections, Carbon County, Pennsylvania), interview with Pitt Cyber, 4 October 2019.

Miller, Amy. "Carbon voting machines on way." Times News, 6 September 2019. Accessed 1 October 2019. 

New Voting Systems, Bureau of Elections/Voter Registration, Carbon County. Accessed 1 October 2019.

Centre County

McKinley, Joyce (Director of Elections and Voter Registration, Centre County, Pennsylvania), interview with Pitt Cyber, 17 July 2019.

Paez, Sarah. “Centre County to spend $1.2 million to buy new voting machines.” Centre Daily Times, 5 February 2019. Accessed 30 July 2019.

Chester County

Voting Machine Contract with Amendment

Clarion County

Gareis, Evanne. "Clarion Co. chooses voting machine vendor." Tri-County Sunday, 15 December 2019. Accessed 6 January 2020. 

Clarion County Board of Commissioners Meeting Minutes, 10 December 2019. Accessed 23 January 2020. 

Clinton County

Boileau, Maria (Director of Voter Registration and Elections, Clinton County, Pennsylvania), interview with Pitt Cyber, 26 July 2019.

Rishel, John. “County changes mind on voting machine vendor.” The Express, 16 April 2019. Accessed 30 July 2019.  

Columbia County

Repasky, Matthew (Director of Elections, Columbia County, Pennsylvania), interview with Citizens for Better Elections, 2 January 2020.

Columbia County Voting Systems Contract

Crawford County

Gushard, Keith. “County approves leasing new voting machines.” The Meadville Tribune, 28 February 2019. Accessed 30 July 2019.

Cumberland County

Salzarulo, Bethany (Director of Elections, Cumberland County, Pennsylvania), interview with Citizens for Better Elections, 15 July 2019. 

Dauphin County

Feaser, Gerald (Director of Elections and Registration, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania), interview with Citizens for Better Elections, 2 January 2020.

Previti, Emily. "Pennsylvania counties make year-end deadline for picking new voting systems, but still have to contend with changes to state election code." PA Post, 30 December 2019. Accessed 6 January 2020.

Delaware County

Carey, Kathleen. "Delco OKs $6 million purchase of new voting machine system." Daily Times, 24 October 2019. Accessed 20 November 2019.

Delaware County. "Delaware County council approves purchase of new voting system." Delaware County Public Relations Releases. Accessed 20 November 2019.

Delaware County Voting Systems Contract

Elk County

Frey, Kimberly S. (Director of Elections and Voter Registration, Elk County, Pennsylvania), interview with Pitt Cyber, 15 August 2019.

Elk County. "New voting machines." Elk County News, 2 August 2019. Accessed 15 August 2019. 

"Elk county purchases new voting machines." Ridgway Record, 7 August 2019. Accessed 15 August 2019. 

Erie County

Bradfield, Brissa. "Erie takes first steps towards new voting machines." Erie News Now, 16 August 2019. Accessed 26 August 2019. 

Smith, Doug (Chief Clerk, Erie County, Pennsylvania), interview by Citizens for Better Elections on 19 August 2019.

Fayette County

Blosser, Larry. (Director of Election Bureau, Fayette County, Pennsylvania), interview with Pitt Cyber, 22 October 2019.

Forest County

Hitchcock, Jean Ann (Director of Elections & Voter Registrar, Forest County, Pennsylvania), interview with Pitt Cyber, 23 January 2020.

Franklin County

Byers, Jean (Deputy Chief Clerk, Franklin County, Pennsylvania), interview with Citizens for Better Elections, 30 July 2019.

Greenfield, Sherry. “Franklin County election board closer to getting new voting equipment.” Herald Mail Media, 24 June 2019. Accessed 30 July 2019.  

Fulton County

Fulton County Commissioners Meeting, 20 August 2019. Accessed 20 November 2019. 

Fulton County Commissioners Meeting, 17 September 2019. Accessed 20 November 2019. 

Greene County

Jones, Mike. “Greene County purchases new voting machines in time for 2019 election.” Observer-Reporter, 23 February 2019. Accessed 30 July 2019.

Jones, Mike. "Training sessions to be held for Greene County's new voting machines." Observer-Reporter, 4 April 2019. Accessed 15 August 2019. 

Kiger, Tina (Director of Elections, Greene County, Pennsylvania), interview with Pitt Cyber, 16 July 2019.

Kiger, Tina (Director of Elections, Greene County, Pennsylvania), interview with Pitt Cyber, 16 August 2019. 

Note: Greene County describes their system as presenting voters with the option to either hand mark their ballots or to use a ballot-marking device. Accordingly, we have categorized their system as a hand-marked paper ballot system.

Huntingdon County

Huntingdon County Voting Systems Contract

Thompson, Tammy (Elections Coordinator, Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania), email interview with Pitt Cyber, 13 February 2020.

Indiana County

Election Systems and Software, LLC. Indiana County. Sales Order Agreement, 19 December 2018.

How to Use Our Voting Machines.” Indiana County PA Webpage. Accessed 30 July 2019.

Maryai, Robin (Chief Clerk, Indiana County, Pennsylvania), interview with Pitt Cyber, 16 July 2019.

Pennsylvania Department of State. “Acting Secretary of State presents Indiana County commissioners with funding for new voting system.” PR Newswire, 29 May 2019. Accessed 30 July 2019.

Jefferson County 

Norwood, Joy. "New voting system costs Jefferson County almost $600,000." Jeffersonian Democrat, 15 August 2019. Accessed 20 November 2019.

Juniata County 

Cannon, Joe. "County purchases new voting equipment." The Sentinel, 14 August 2019. Accessed 20 November 2019. 

Juniata County Commissioners Meeting, 13 August 2019. Accessed 20 November 2019. 

Lackawanna County

Lackawanna County Voting System Contract 

Lackawanna County Purchase Order Agreement 

Lackawanna County Software License and Support Services Agreement

Medalis, Marion (Director of Elections, Lackawanna County, Pennsylvania), interview with Citizens for Better Elections, 3 January 2020.

Singleton, David. "Pennsylvania county approves purchase of new voting system." Government Technology, 12 December 2019. Accessed 18 December 2019.

Lancaster County

Walker, Carter. “Elections board selects new voting system for Lancaster County.” LancasterOnline, 20 June 2019. Accessed 30 July 2019.

Wenger, Randall (Chief Clerk/Registrar, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania), interview with Citizens for Better Elections, 22 July 2019.

Lawrence County

Allison, L. Edward (Director of Voter Registration and Elections, Lawrence County, Pennsylvania), interview with Pitt Cyber, 16 July 2019.

O’Shea, Patrick. “Lawrence County commissioners choose precinct scan voting system.” Ellwood City Ledger, 15 January 2019. Accessed 30 July 2019.

Wachter, Debbie. “County proceeding with election system purchase.” New Castle News, 13 February 2019. Accessed 30 July 2019.

Lebanon County

Anderson, Michael L. (Director of Lebanon County Bureau of Elections, Lebanon County, Pennsylvania), interview with Citizens for Better Elections, 8 August 2019.

Litz, Jo Ellen. “Mandated Voting Machines chosen.” YouTube, 9 February 2019. Accessed 30 July 2019.

Shaver, Davis. “Lebanon County meets state deadline to select new voting system.” LebTown, 12 February 2019. Accessed 30 July 2019.  

Note: Lebanon County describes their system as a hand-marked paper ballot system for most voters but also has more than one ballot-marking device in each polling place. Accordingly, we have categorized their system as a hand-marked paper ballot system.

Lehigh County

Benyo, Tim (Director of Elections, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania), interview with Citizens for Better Elections, 16 May 2019.

Bresswein, Kurt. “Lehigh Valley facing $7M price tag for new paper-record voting machines.” Lehigh Valley Live, 6 January 2019. Accessed 30 July 2019.

Muschick, Paul. “Paul Muschick: Here’s how to vote using Lehigh and Northampton county’s new machines.” The Morning Call, 12 April 2019. Accessed 30 July 2019.  

Shortell, Tom. “Back to the future: Lehigh County voters will use paper ballots in 2019.” The Morning Call, 23 February 2019. Accessed 30 July 2019.  

Luzerne County

Learn-Andes, Jennifer. "Luzerne County manager issues his selections for voting and 911 purchases." Times Leader, 22 November 2019. Accessed 10 December 2019.

Luzerne County Voting System Agreement

Mark, Eric. "County Council approves 911 upgrade, new voting machines." The Citizens' Voice, 4 December 2019. Accessed 10 December 2019. 

Lycoming County

Hibbard, Katelyn. “Commissioners approve $1M for voting machines.” Williamsport Sun-Gazette, 31 May 2019. Accessed 30 July 2019.

Hibbard, Katelyn. “Commissioners consider $1M voting machines.” Williamsport Sun-Gazette, 29 May 2019. Accessed 30 July 2019.  

Lehman, Forrest (Director of Elections and Registration, Lycoming County, Pennsylvania), interview with Pitt Cyber, 16 July 2019.

McKean County

De Lancey, Fran. "McKean County commissioners buy new voting machines." The Bradford Era. 26 June 2019. Accessed 26 August 2019. 

Pratt, Lisa (Director of Elections, McKean County, Pennsylvania), interview by Citizens for Better Elections, 21 August 2019.

Mercer County

Greenburg, Jeff (Director of Elections and Voter Registration, Mercer County, Pennsylvania), interview with Pitt Cyber, 17 July 2019.

Victoria, Tom. “County OKs bid for election system.” The Sharon Herald, 17 May 2019. Accessed 30 July 2019.

Mifflin County

Cannon, Joe. "Mifflin County to purchase new voting machines." The Sentinel, 30 August 2019. Accessed 1 October 2019. 

Swanger, Zane (Director of Elections and Voter Registration, Mifflin County, Pennsylvania), interview by Pitt Cyber, 6 September 2019.

Monroe County

Dorsey, Justin. “Monroe County gearing up for new paper ballot voting machines.” BRC 13, 2 May 2019. Accessed 30 July 2019.

Mahon, Ed and Emily Previti. “Who’s making money as Pa. counties upgrade voting machines?” PennLive, 28 May 2019. Accessed 30 July 2019.

Silfee, Sara (Director of Elections/Voter Registration, Monroe County, PA), interview with Citizens for Better Elections, 17 July 2019.

Montgomery County

Brandt, Evan. “Residents preview Montco’s new voting machines.” The Mercury, 25 April 2019. Accessed 30 July 2019.

Sisler, Karly (Director of Voter Services, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania), interview with Citizens for Better Elections, 22 July 2019.

Ullery, Chris. “State Oks new voting machine, but shutdown could delay use in Montco.” The Intelligencer, 23 January 2019. Accessed 30 July 2019.

Montour County

Blackledge, Karen. "New voting machines assembled, tested in Montour County." The Daily Item, 24 January 2020. Accessed 29 January 2020.

Darlis Dyer (Assistant Director of Elections, Montour County, Pennsylvania), interview by Citizens for Better Elections, 28 January 2020.

Northampton County

Cozze, Amy (Administrative Staff, Northampton County, Pennsylvania), interview with Citizens for Better Elections, 18 July 2019.

Hess, Amy (Election Director, Northampton County, Pennsylvania), interview with Citizens for Better Elections, 18 July 2019.

Muschick, Paul. “Paul Muschick: Here’s how to vote using Lehigh and Northampton county’s new machines.” The Morning Call, 12 April 2019. Accessed 30 July 2019.

"Northampton County Administrative Report" slideshow, March 2019.

Shortell, Tom. “Expert vouches for Northampton County, PA., voting machines.” Government Technology, 6 May 2019. Accessed 30 July 2019.  

Northumberland County

Purcell, Tara (Director of Elections, Northumberland County, Pennsylvania), interview by Citizens for Better Elections, 28 January 2020.

Strawser, Justin. "New voting machines to cost Northumberland County $962K." The Daily Item, 26 December 2019. Accessed 6 January 2020.

Perry County 

Folwer, Wade. "Perry County buying election system before 2019 vote." Penn Live, 10 August 2019. Accessed 15 August 2019.

Shrawder, Deborah (Deputy Director of Elections and Voter Registration, Perry County, Pennsylvania), interview with Pitt Cyber, August 15, 2019

Philadelphia County

City of Philadelphia. Provider Agreement, Election Systems and Software, LLC. 13 May 2019.

Kaplan, Amy. “Philadelphia city commissioners approve new touch screen voting machines.” The Daily Pennsylvanian, 21 February 2019. Accessed 30 July 2019.

Kelly, Kevin (Director of Voter Services, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania), interview with Citizens for Better Elections, 17 July 2019.

Pennsylvania Department of State. “Philadelphia becomes latest county to approve purchase of new ES&S voting system.” Election Systems and Software, 22 February 2019. Accessed 30 July 2019.

Pike County

Manzoni, Nadeem (Elections Director, Pike County, Pennsylvania), interview with Citizens for Better Elections, 17 July 2019.

Strunk, Brianna. “Pike County rolling out new voting equipment.” PA Homepage, 20 February 2019. Accessed 30 July 2019.

Potter County

Kines, Halie. "Commissioners purchase new voting machines." Potter Leader-Enterprise. 11 July 2019. Accessed 26 August 2019. 

Potter County. "Potter County's new voting machines have arrived." Potter County Today. 15 August 2019. Accessed 26 August 2019.

Schuylkill County

Bortner, Peter. "Schuylkill commissioners OK Plan to buy new voting machines." The Citizens' Voice, 12 December 2019. Accessed 18 December 2019. 

Brennan, Frannie (Director, Election Bureau, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania), interview by Citizens for Better Elections, 28 January 2020.

Price, Lisa. "Schuylkill chooses new voting machines." Times News Online, 12 December 2019. Accessed 18 December 2019. 

Schuylkill County Voting Systems Contract

Schuylkill County Purchase Order

Somerset County

Hurst, David. "Somerset approves ‘back to paper’ voting system." The Tribune-Democrat, 25 December 2019. Accessed 6 January 2020.

Snyder County

Moore, Marcia. "County approves purchase of voting machines." The Daily Item. 31 July 2019. Accessed 26 August 2019. 

Nace, Patricia (Election Director, Snyder County, Pennsylvania), interview by Citizens for Better Elections, 22 August 2019.

Sullivan County

Verelst, Hope (Director of Elections, Sullivan County, Pennsylvania), interview by Citizens for Better Elections, 28 January 2020. 

Susquehanna County

Rudock, Macy (Election Director/Voter Registrar, Susquehanna County, Pennsylvania), interview with Citizens for Better Elections, 18 July 2019.

Sheffield, Reggie. “County purchases new vote counting system.” Susquehanna Independent, 30 August 2018. Accessed 30 July 2019.

Tioga County

Kennedy, Natalie. “Voters to use paper ballots in November.” Wellsboro Gazette, 18 July 2019. Accessed 30 July 2019.

Union County

Scicchitano, Eric. “California firm to provide new voting machines in fall election.” The Daily Item, 17 July 2019. Accessed 30 July 2019.

Venango County

Backer, Sabrina (Chief Clerk/CountyAdministrator/Director of Elections, Venango County, Pennsylvania), interview with Pitt Cyber, 17 July 2019.  

Meyer, Jim. “Venango Co. commissioners sign contract for new voting machines.” Venango Extra, 29 March 2019. Accessed 31 July 2019.

Warren County

Times-News Staff. "Video shows how to use Warren County voting machines." Go Erie, 1 November 2019. Accessed 6 January 2020.

Rivett, Lisa (Department Head, Elections & Voter Registration Department, Warren County, Pennsylvania), interview with Pitt Cyber, 23 January 2020.

Warren County, PA, Warren County New Election System Tutorial, 31 October 2019. Accessed 23 January 2020. 

Washington County

Miller, Barbara. "Election board chooses ES&S for new voting machines to be deployed in 2020." Observer-Reporter, 17 September 2019.

Ostrander, Melanie (Director of Elections, Washington County, Pennsylvania), interview with Pitt Cyber, 9 October 2019.

Wayne County

Furman, Cindy (Director of Elections, Wayne County, Pennsylvania), interview with Citizens for Better Elections, 3 January 2020.

Miller, Sam. "Wayne County signals intent to purchase new voting machines." Wayne Pike News, 2 January 2020. Accessed 6 January 2020.

Wayne County Voting System Agreement

Westmoreland County

Cholodofsky, Rich. "New voting machines on display at Westmoreland County Courthouse." Trib Live, 21 October 2019. Accessed 21 October 2019.

Signorini, Renatta. "Westmoreland commissioners authorize $7.1 million purchase of new voting equipment." Trib Live, 10 October 2019. Accessed 21 October 2019.

Westmoreland County Commissioners Meeting, 10 October 2019. Accessed 20 November 2019.

Wyoming  County

Kellet, Florence (Director of Elections/Voter Registration, Wyoming County, Pennsylvania), interview with Citizens for Better Elections, 18 July 2019.

Hiduk, Rick. “Wyoming County approves voting system purchase.” EndlessMtnLifestyles, 7 February 2019. Accessed 31 July 2019.

York County

Kohlbus, Sally (Supervisor of Elections and Voter Registration, York County, Pennsylvania), interview with Citizens for Better Elections, 26 July 2019.

O’Laughlin, Lindsey. “York County signs $1.4 million deal for new voting machines.” York Dispatch, 5 June 2019. Accessed 31 July 2019.  

Suchanic, Nikki (Director of Elections and Voter Registration, York County, Pennsylvania), interview with Citizens for Better Elections, 18 July 2019.